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Cooking Conversions Indian Food Glossary

Cooking Measurements

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Glossary of Cooking Terms

List of terms Used Generally

AL DENTE:
Italian term used to describe pasta that is cooked until it offers a slight resistance to the bite.
BAKE: 
To cook by dry heat, usually in the oven.
BARBECUE: 
Usually used generally to refer to grilling done outdoors or over an open charcoal or wood fire. More specifically, barbecue refers to long, slow direct- heat cooking, including liberal basting with a barbecue sauce.
BASTE:
To moisten foods during cooking with pan drippings or special sauce to add   flavor and prevent drying.
BATTER:
A mixture containing flour and liquid, thin enough to pour.
BEAT:
To mix rapidly in order to make a mixture smooth and light by incorporating as much air as possible.
BLANCH: 
To immerse in rapidly boiling water and allow to cook slightly.
BLEND: 
To incorporate two or more ingredients thoroughly.
BOIL:
To heat a liquid until bubbles break continually on the surface.
BROIL:
To cook on a grill under strong, direct heat.
CARAMELIZE:
To heat sugar in order to turn it brown and give it a special taste.
CHOP: 
To cut solids into pieces with a sharp knife or other chopping device.
CLARIFY: 
To separate and remove solids from a liquid, thus making it clear.
CREAM:
To soften a fat, especially butter, by beating it at room temperature. Butter and sugar are often creamed together, making a smooth, soft paste.
CURE: 
To preserve meats by drying and salting and/or smoking.
DEGLAZE:
To dissolve the thin glaze of juices and brown bits on the surface of a pan in which food has been fried, sauteed or roasted. To do this, add liquid and   stir and scrape over high heat, thereby adding flavor to the liquid for use as a sauce.
DEGREASE:
To remove fat from the surface of stews, soups, or stock. Usually cooled in   the refrigerator so that fat hardens and is easily removed.
DICE:
To cut food in small cubes of uniform size and shape.
DISSOLVE:
To cause a dry substance to pass into solution in a liquid.
DREDGE: 
To sprinkle or coat with flour or other fine substance.
DRIZZLE: 
To sprinkle drops of liquid lightly over food in a casual manner.
DUST: 
To sprinkle food with dry ingredients. Use a strainer or a jar with a perforated cover, or try the good, old-fashioned way of shaking things together in a paper bag.
FILLET: 
As a verb, to remove the bones from meat or fish. A fillet (or filet) is the piece of flesh after it has been boned.
FLAKE:
To break lightly into small pieces.
FLAMBE':
To flame foods by dousing in some form of potable alcohol and setting alight.
FOLD:
To incorporate a delicate substance, such as whipped cream into another substance without releasing air bubbles. Cut down through mixture with spoon, whisk, or fork; go across bottom of bowl, up and over, close to surface. The process is repeated, while slowing rotating the bowl, until the ingredients are thoroughly blended.
FRICASSEE:
To cook by braising; usually applied to fowl or rabbit.
FRY: 
To cook in hot fat. To cook in a fat is called pan-frying or sauteing; to cook in a one-to-two inch layer of hot fat is called shallow-fat frying; to cook in a deep layer of hot fat is called deep-fat frying.
GARNISH:
To decorate a dish both to enhance its appearance and to provide a flavorful foil. Parsley, lemon slices, raw vegetables, chopped chives, and other herbs are all forms of garnishes.
GLAZE:
To cook with a thin sugar syrup cooked to crack stage; mixture may be thickened slightly. Also, to cover with a thin, glossy icing.
GRATE: 
To rub on a grater that separates the food in various sizes of bits or shreds.
GRATIN:
From the French word for "crust." Term used to describe any oven-baked dish--usually cooked in a shallow oval gratin dish--on which a golden brown crust of bread crumbs, cheese or creamy sauce is form.
GRILL: 
To cook on a grill over intense heat.
GRIND: 
To process solids by hand or mechanically to reduce them to tiny particles.
JULIENNE:
To cut vegetables, fruits, or cheeses into thin strips.
KNEAD:
To work and press dough with the palms of the hands or mechanically, to develop the gluten in the flour.
LUKEWARM: 
Neither cool nor warm; approximately body temperature.
MARINATE: 
To flavor and moisturize pieces of paneer, vegetable by soaking them in or   brushing them with a liquid mixture of seasonings known as a marinade. Dry marinade mixtures composed of salt, pepper, herbs or spices may also be rubbed into paneer or vegetables.
MEUNIERE:
Dredged with flour and sauteed in butter.
MINCE:
To cut or chop food into extremely small pieces.
MIX:
To combine ingredients usually by stirring.
PAN-BROIL:
To cook uncovered in a hot fry pan, pouring off fat as it accumulates.
PAN-FRY: 
To cook in small amounts of fat.
PARBOIL:
To boil until partially cooked; to blanch. Usually this procedure is followed by final cooking in a seasoned sauce.
PARE: 
To remove the outermost skin of a fruit or vegetable.
PEEL: 
To remove the peels from vegetables or fruits.
PICKLE:
To preserve meats, vegetables, and fruits in brine.
PINCH: 
A pinch is the trifling amount you can hold between your thumb and forefinger.
PIT: 
To remove pits from fruits.
PLANKED:
Cooked on a thick hardwood plank.
PLUMP: 
To soak dried fruits in liquid until they swell.
POACH: 
To cook very gently in hot liquid kept just below the boiling point.
PUREE: 
To mash foods until perfectly smooth by hand, by rubbing through a sieve or food mill, or by whirling in a blender or food processor.
REDUCE:
To boil down to reduce the volume.
REFRESH:
To run cold water over food that has been parboiled, to stop the cooking process quickly.
RENDER:
To make solid fat into liquid by melting it slowly.
ROAST:
To cook by dry heat in an oven.
SAUTE: 
To cook and/or brown food in a small amount of hot fat.
SCALD: 
To bring to a temperature just below the boiling point.
SCALLOP:
To bake a food, usually in a casserole, with sauce or other liquid. Crumbs often are sprinkled over.
SCORE:
To cut narrow grooves or gashes partway through the outer surface of food.
SEAR:
To brown very quickly by intense heat. This method increases shrinkage but develops flavor and improves appearance.
SHRED:
To cut or tear in small, long, narrow pieces.
SIFT:
To put one or more dry ingredients through a sieve or sifter.
SIMMER:
To cook slowly in liquid over low heat at a temperature of about 180°. The surface of the liquid should be barely moving, broken from time to time by   slowly rising bubbles.
SKIM: 
To remove impurities, whether scum or fat, from the surface of a liquid during cooking, thereby resulting in a clear, cleaner-tasting final produce.
STEAM: 
To cook in steam in a pressure cooker, deep well cooker, double boiler, or a steamer made by fitting a rack in a kettle with a tight cover. A small amount of boiling water is used, more water being added during steaming process, if necessary.
STEEP:
To extract color, flavor, or other qualities from a substance by leaving it in water just below the boiling point.
STERILIZE: 
To destroy micro organisms by boiling, dry heat, or steam.
STEW:
To simmer slowly in a small amount of liquid for a long time.
STIR:
To mix ingredients with a circular motion until well blended or of uniform consistency.
TOSS: 
To combine ingredients with a lifting motion.
TRUSS:
To secure poultry with string or skewers, to hold its shape while cooking.
WHIP: 
To beat rapidly to incorporate air and produce expansion, as in heavy cream or yogurt.

Indian Food Glossary



Indian food is a diverse and extraordinary one. Different regions in India offer their own specialties with their very own taste, subtlety and aroma. This chart shows you the conventional names of ingredients to hindi names.
Glossary Of Pulses:

English Name
Indian / Hindi Name

Beaten Rice
Poha

Bengal Gram
Chana

Black Gram Sabut
Urad Dal / Kaali Dal

Black Eyed Beans
Chawli / Lobhia

Broken Wheat
Dalia

Chickpeas (brown)
Chana

Chickpeas (green)
Cholia / Hara Chana

Chickpeas (white)
Kabuli Chana

Gram Flour
Besan / Chane Ka Atta

Green Gram
Moong

Horse Gram
Kulthi

Maize Flour
Makai Ka Atta

Puffed Rice
Kurmura

Red Kidney Beans
Rajma

Red Lentil
Masoor

Refined Flour
Maida

Rice
Chawal

Semolina
Rava / Suji

Split Bengal Gram
Chana Dal

Split Black Gram
Urad Dal / Kaali Dal

Split Green Gram
Moong Dal

Split Red Gram
Tuvar Dal / Arhar Dal

Split Red Lentil
Masoor Dal

Wheat
Gehun

Wheat Flour
Gehun Ka Atta

Indian Names For Spices, Fruits, Dairy Products and Their Categories:

Common Indian Names
English Names
Category

Adrak / Sonth
Ginger
Spices

Ajwain
Carom Seeds / Thyme
Spices

Amchoor
Dried Mango Powder
Masala

Anaar Dana (Powder)
Pomegranate Seeds (Dried)
Masala

Angoor
Grapes
Fruit

Atta
Wheat Flour
Flour

Badam
Almond
Dry Fruit

Besan
Gram Flour
Flour

Bhutta
Corn Cobs
Vegetable

Chana
Bengal Gram
Pulses

Chana Dal
Gram Dal
Pulses

Chikoo
Sapota
Fruit

Chhuara
Dates (Dried)
Dry Fruit

Dahi
Curd
Dairy Product

Dalchini
Cinnamon
Spices

Dhania Patta
Coriander Leaves
Vegetable

Dhania Powder
Coriander Powder
Masala

Elaichi (Chhoti)
Green Cardamom
Spices

Elaichi (Moti)
Brown Cardamom
Spices

Ghee
Clarified Butter
Dairy Product

Hari Mirch
Green Chilly
Vegetable

Hing
Asafetida
Spices

Imli
Tamarind
General

Jaiphal
Nutmeg
Seeds

Javitri
Mace
Spices

Jeera
Cumin Seed
Seeds

Kaju
Cashew Nut
Dry Fruit

Kala Jeera / Black Cumin Seeds
Caraway Seeds
Seeds

Kala Namak
Rock Salt
Masala

Kali Mirch
Black Pepper
Spices

Kari Patta
Curry Leaves
Herb

Kheera
Cucumber
Vegetable

Khoya, Mawa
Dried Whole Milk/Thickened Milk
Dairy Product

Kishmish
Currants
Dry Fruit

Lasan / Lahsun
Garlic
Spices

Laung
Clove
Spices

Maida
Fine Wheat Flour
Cereal

Malai
Cream
Milk Fat

Mattha (Chhaach)
Butter Milk
Dairy Product

Methi
Fenugreek Seeds
Seeds

Mirch
Chilly
Vegetable

Moong Fali
Groundnut
Dry Fruits

Nimboo ka Sat
Citric Acid
Acid

Paneer
Cottage Cheese
Dairy Product

Patta Gobi
Cabbage
Vegetable

Paav / Pav / Pao
Bun
Cereal

Phitkari
Alum
General

Phool Gobi
Cauliflower
Vegetable

Poha, Chiwda
Flaked, Beaten rice
Cereal

Pudina Leaves
Mint Leaves
Vegetables

Raai / Raee
Mustard Seeds (Small)
Spices

Saboodana / Sabudana
Sago
General

Sarson
Mustard Seeds (Moti)
Spices

Saunf
Aniseed
Seeds

Shimla Mirch
Capsicum
Vegetable

Tadka
Seasoning
Cooking Process

Tej Patta
Bay Leaf
Herb

Urad Dal
Horse Bean
Pulses






ENGLISH
HINDI
TAMIL
KANNADA
TELUGU

Spices





Turmeric
Haldi
Manjal
Harasina pudi
Pasupu

Coriander seeds
Dhania
Dhaniya, Kothamalli vithai
Kotthambari Beeja;
Dhaniya
Dhaniyalu

Cloves
Lavang
Lavangam, Kiraambu
Lavanga
Lavangam

Fennel
Saunf
Sombu
Sompoo
Peddajeelakarra

Cinnamon
Tuj/Dalchini
Lavanga Pattai
Dalchinni/chakke
Dalchina chekka

Cardamom
Elaichi
Yelakkai
Elakki
Elakulu

Cilantro, Coriander leaves
Dhania
Kothamalli
Kotthambari Soppu
Kothimiri

Ginger
Adrak
Inji
Shunti
Allam

Garlic
Lasun
Poondu
Bellulli
Vellulli

Pepper corns
Kalimirchi
Milagu
Menasu
Miriyalu

Fenugreek seeds
Methi
Vendhayam
Menthya
Menthulu

Red chili 
lal Mirchi
Kaindha milagai, Vatral milagai
Onamenasinakaayi
Endu mirapakayalu

Poppy seeds
Khuskhus
Gasagasa
Gasagase
Gasagasalu

Asafetida
Hing
Perungayam
Ingu
Inguva

Saffron
Kesar
Kungumapoo
Kesari
Kumkumapuvvu

Aniseed
Sauf
Perunjeeragam
Dodda jeera
Sopu

Bay leaf, Cinnamon leaf
Tej/Tuj patta
Birinji ilai
Briyani ele
Biriyani aaku

Cumin seeds
Shah Jeera/Kala Jeera
Sombu
Jeerige
Jeelakarra

Mustard seeds
Rai/Sarson
Kadugu
Saasive
Sasuvalu

Mint leaves
Podina
Pudhina
Pudina
Pudina aaku



Nuts/Dried fruit

Peanuts, Groundnuts
moongphali
Verkadalai, Nilakadalai
Kadalekaayi beeja
Veru sanaga pappu

Cashew nut
Kaju
Mundhiri Paruppu
Godambi
Jeedipappu

Almonds
Badam
Baadam
Baadaami
Baadam

Pistachio
Pista

Pista


Walnut
Akroot
Akrut
Akrotu


Dates
Kajhoor
Perichanpazham
Kharjoora; Utthatthi
Karjuram

Dried Apricot
Khumani

Aprikot


Raisin
Kishmish
Kaintha thratchai
Ona drakshi
Endu draksha



Grains/Flours

Gram flour
Besan
Kadalai Mavu
Kadale Hittu
Senaga pindi

All purpose flour (Maida)
Maida
Maida mavu
Maida Hittu
Maida pindi

Wheat flour
Atta, Chappathi flour
Gothumai mavu, Chapathi mavu
Godhi Hittu
Goduma pindi

Par-boiled rice
-
Puzhungal Arisi
Kuchilakki; Kusubalakki
Dampudu/Uppudu biyyam







Semolina
Suji
Ravai
Rave
Rava



Lentils
dal
Paruppu
Bele
 Pappu

Vermicelli
Seviyan
Semiya
Shaavige
Semiyalu

Yellow split peas
Thoor dal
Thuvaram Paruppu
Thogari Bele
Kandi pappu

Bengal gram
Channa dal
Kadalai Paruppu
Kadale Bele
Senaga pappu

Black gram
Urad dal
Ulundhu, Ulutham Paruppu
Uddina bele
Minappappu

Green gram
Moong dal
Pachai Paruppu
Hesaru bele
Pesara pappu



Seasonings

Tamarind
Imli
Puli
Hunise Hannu
Chintapandu

Jaggery
Gur
Vellam
Bella
Bellam

Sesame seeds
til
Ellu
Ellu
Nuvvulu

Green hot chili
Hari Mirchi
Pachai milagai
Hasi Menasina Kaayi
Pachchi mirapakaya

Green pepper, Capsicum
bari mirch
Kudai milagai
Dappa Menasina Kaayi
Bengaluru Mirapakaya

Curry leaves
kari Patta
Karivepilai
Karibevu
Karivepaku/karivevu



Vegetables

Egg plant, Brinjal
Biangan
Katharikai
Badinekaayi
Vankaya

Okra, Ladies Finger
Bhindi
Vendaikai
Bendekaayi
Bendakaya

Gentleman's Toes, Tindla
tinda
Kovaikai
-----


Drumstick
Seeng
Murungaikai
Nuggekaayi
Munakkaya

Bottle Guard,Opo Squash
Doodhi
Suraikai
Sorekaayi
Sorakaayi

Serrated Guard, Chinese Okra

Peerkangkai
Heerekaayi


Amaranth
Chauli, chavleri

Dantina Soppu


Arrowroot
Paniphal, Tikora




Ash gourd
Petha

Boodugumbala
Boodida Gummadikaayi

Asparagus
Shatwar, sootmooli,halyan




Asparagus
Musli




Avocado, butterfruit
Makhanphal

BenneHannu


Bell Pepper
Simla Mirch

Dappa Menesina Kaayi


Bengal gram leaves
Chaney ki bhaji (Hummus)

Soppina Kadale


Bitter gourd
Karela
Paakarkai
Haagalakaayi
Kakarakaayi

Bottle gourd
Lauki,doodhi

Sorekaayi


Cabbage
Patha gobi
Kosu
Yele Kosu
Kosu

Carrot
Gajar
karat
Gajjari; Carrot


Cauliflower
Phool gobi

Hoo Kosu


Chilli
Mirchi
MiLagai
MenasinaKaayi
Mirapa

Cluster Beans
Gowaar Phali

Gorikaayi / Javalikaayi


Colocasia
Arbi

Aravi


Coriander Cilantro
Dhania
Dhania
Kotthambari
Kottimira

Corn cobs, maize
Bhutta, makka

Musukina Jola


Corn kernel
Makai
MakkaasoLam
Musukina Jola
Mokkajonna

Cowpea
Lobia

Halasande; Thadaguni


Cucumber
Kakdi
VeLLarikkai
Southekaayi
Dosakaya

Dillweed
Suvabhaji

Sabbasige Soppu


Drumstick leaves
Muranka bhaji
Murungaikaai
Nugge ele
Munagaaku

French Beans
Flas Beans

Beans


Gardencress
Halim




Gherkins
Kunthroo, Goli, Tondli

Thondekaayi


Green chilli
Hari mirch
Pacchai Milagaai
Hasimensina kaayi
Pachchimirapakaya

Indian sorrel
Khatti bhaji




Khesari leaves
Masoor bhaji




Lettuce
Kasmisaag




Lime or Lemon
Nimbu
Elumichai
Ninmbe hannu
Nimmakaya

Lotus Stem
Kamal Kakadior, Bhien

Thaavare dantu


Makhanphal
Avocado, butterfruit

Benne Hannu


Mushrooms
Goochi
Naikudai
Naayikode
Puttagodugu

Olives
Zetoon / Zaitoon




Onion
Kanda Pyaaz
Vengaayam
Eerulli; Ullaagadde
Vullipaya

Peas
Matar
PattaaNi
Bataani
Pachchi Batani

Potato
Aloo
Urulai Kizhangu
Aalugadde
Bangaladumpa

Pumpkin
Kadhu
Poosanikkai
Kumbalakaayi
Gummadi

Radish
Mooli
Mullangi
Moolangi
Mullangi

Red sorrel
Chukka bhaji


Chukkaku

Salad leaves, endives
Gulsuchal




Spinach
Palak
Keerai
Paalaaku; Paalakku
Palakura

Sweet potato
Shakarkand
Vallikizhangu
Sihi Genasu
Chilakada Dumpa

Tapioca
Simla Aloo

Mara Genasu
Chema dumpa

Tomato
Tamatar
Thakkaali
Tomato; Tamaate
Tomato

Vegetables
Sabji
KaaykarikaL
Tharakaari
Kooragayalu

Water Chestnuts
Shingara






FRUITS
  Fal
  Pazhangal
Hannugalu
  Pandu

Apple
Sabe
AappiL
Sebu
Aapil

Bael, Stone apple, Bengal quince
Bel, siriphal

Belada Hannu


Banana
Kela
Vaazhaipazham
Baale Hannu
Arati

Chakothra
Pomelo

Chakotha


Chin fruit, litchie
Lichee




Figs
Amjeer
Atthipazham



Grapes
Angoor
Draakshai
Draakshi
Draksha

Guavas
Amrood
Koyya
Seebe Hannu; Perala;  Bikke Hannu
Jaama

Jackfruit
Kathal
Palaapazham
Halasina Hannu
Panasa

Jamoon
Jambul fruit java plum
Naavalpazham
Nerale Hannu


Mango
Aam
Maampazham
Maavina Hannu
Mamidi

Mashmelon
Kharbooja

Siddota; Banaspatre; Minike Hannu


Mulberry
Shehtooth




Muskmelon/Cantalope
Kharbooja

Siddota; Banaspatre; Minike Hannu
Karbooja

Orange
Santra
Kamala
Kitthale Hannu
Kamala Pandu

Papaya
Papeeta
BappaLi
Parangi Hannu
Boppayi

Pear
Nashpati
Berikkai
Mara Sebu


Pineapple
Ananas
Annaasi
Anaanas
Anaasa

Plum
Aloobukara


Albhakra paandu

Pomegranate
Anar
Mathulai
Daalimbe
Daanimma

Sweet lime
Mosambi
Saathukudi
Moosambi
Battaaya

Watermelon
Tarbooj, Kalingad
Darpoosani
Kallangadi
Pucchchakaayi

Zizyphus
Ber, bor

Elachi Hannu; Bore Hannu


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